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# What are all the factors, the prime factorization, and factor pairs of 12?

To find the factors of 12, divide 12 by each number starting with 1 and working up to 12

Now let us find how to calculate all the factors of 12:
2
= 6
3
= 4
As you can see, the factors of 12 are:
1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 12

## Introduction to Factors

Factors are fundamental components in the world of mathematics, specifically in the division and multiplication of numbers. They are the building blocks that, when multiplied together, produce a certain result. Starting with 12 as an illustrative example, factors of 12 are the numbers we can multiply in pairs to get 12. This insight into factors enriches our understanding of the number’s structure and properties within mathematics.

## What are Factors of 12?

When talking about the factors of 12, we refer to all the whole numbers that can be multiplied in pairs to result in 12. These pairs can also be represented visually, showcasing how multiplication leads to our specific number. Here is the list of factors for 12:

• 1
• 2
• 3
• 4
• 6
• 12

## How to Find the Factors of 12?

To find the factors of 12, we use the division method, which reveals the integers that divide 12 without leaving a remainder. A factor is always less than or equal to the number itself, so we divide 12 by integers up to 12. For example:

• 12 ÷ 1 = 12, hence 1 is a factor
• 12 ÷ 2 = 6, hence 2 is a factor
• 12 ÷ 3 = 4, hence 3 is a factor
• 12 ÷ 4 = 3, hence 4 is a factor
• 12 ÷ 6 = 2, hence 6 is a factor
• 12 ÷ 12 = 1, hence 12 is a factor

Any number beyond 12 will yield a quotient less than 1, which cannot be a factor of 12.

## Pair Factors of 12

Pair factors of 12 are the two numbers that, when multiplied together, result in 12. We can have both positive and negative pair factors, as a negative multiplied by a negative yields a positive. Here are the pair factors of 12:

Positive Pair FactorsNegative Pair Factors
1 × 12 = 12-1 × -12 = 12
2 × 6 = 12-2 × -6 = 12
3 × 4 = 12-3 × -4 = 12

## Prime Factorization of 12

The prime factorization of 12 is the process of breaking down the number into its prime factors. The prime factorization of 12 is as follows: 12 = 2 × 2 × 3, which can also be written as 2² × 3. By using a factor tree, we can visually display this breakdown:

• Start with 12 and divide it by the smallest prime number, 2.
• We get 6, which is still divisible by 2, resulting in another factor of 2.
• The quotient is now 3, which is a prime number itself and cannot be broken down further.

This final list of prime factors for 12 is 2² × 3, consisting only of prime numbers.

## Important Points to Remember

It’s important to remember the following key points about the factors of 12:

• There are a total of 6 factors of the number 12.
• The prime factors of 12 are 2 and 3.
• Pair factors can come in both positive and negative forms.
• The sum of all the factors of 12 is 1+2+3+4+6+12 = 28.
• 12 is a composite number, hence it has more than two factors.

These aspects give us better insight into the characteristics that define 12 in terms of multiplication and division within mathematics.